Buddhist Texts · e-text/pdf · lingua tibetica

♦ The Madhyamakārthasaṃgraha: edition of the Tibetan text

Although in many more or less recent works we can find translations of Bhāviveka’s Madhyamakārthasaṃgraha (Christian Lindtner, in “Atisa’s introduction to the two truths”, Journal of Indian Philosophy 7, 1981, note p. 200-201; this translation has been reprinted in Potter’s Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies IX, pp. 442-443; Daniel Ferrer, Tibet Journal 17.2, 1992, pp. 52-55), the Tibetan text has nonetheless rarely been published (the sNar-thaṅ version, along with a Sanskrit restoration and an English translation, has been edited long ago by Aiyasvami Shastri, in the Journal of Oriental Research 5, 1931, pp. 41-49). The following is a tentative critical edition (to be included in a forthcoming paper of mine), which I have provided by checking the Co-ne (C),  sDe-dge (D), dGa’-ldan (G) and sNar-thaṅ (N) versions (C: dBu-ma, vol 98=Dza, foll. 329b4-330a4; D: dBu-ma, vol. 200=Dza, foll. 329b4-330a3; G: dBu-ma’i skor, mDo-’grel, Vol. 107=Dza, foll. 473a2-474a1; N: dBu-ma’i kor, mDo-’grel, vol. 107=Dza, foll. 360b5-361a6.) I have of course added the numbers of the verses. I hope that this text could be helpful for all those who are interested in this short but philosophically intense work.

[C 329b4]-[D 329b4]-[G 473a2]-[N 360b5] | | rgya gar skad du | ma dhya mā rtha saṁ gra hada | [C 329b5] bod skad du | dbu ma’i don bsdus pa | bcom ldan ’das dpal kun dua bzaṅ po la phyag ’tshal lo | |

a N, G: ha da.   bN: tu.


gaṅ dag skye [D 329b5] med rtogs pa ñid yin yaṅ [N 360b6] | |

[G 473a3] tha sñad ṅoa gaṅ sñiṅ rjes ’khor ba ma stoṅs parb | |

rgyal ba rnams ni ’jig rten bde bar bskyab pa’ic phyir | |

’di ru bźugsd kyaṅ dri med blo daṅ ldan | |

[C 329b5] de dag rnams la rtag tu bdag phyag ’tshal | | [0]

a C: tha sñad do; G: tha sñad bo.   b G: stoṅ par; N: stoṅ bar.   c D: bskyab ba’i.   d G, N: źugs.


[G 473a4] bden pa gñisa ni ji lta bu’i | |

don ni rtogs par bya ba’i phyir | |

bdag gis ’di ni [N 360b7] rab brtsams te | | [1]

a G: bñis.


[D 329b6] saṅs rgyas rnams kyis chos bstan pa | |

bden pa gñis sua ’dus [G 473a5] pa steb | |

don dam daṅ ni kun rdzob bo | | [2]

a N: gñi-su.   b G: te.


dam pa’i don ni spros bral te | |

de yaṅ rnam paa [C 329b6] gñis sub bya | |

rnam graṅs kyic ni don dam daṅ | |

rnam graṅs ma yin [G 473a6] don damd mo | | [3]

a G: rnams pa.   b N: gñi-su.   c G: kyis.   d N: daṃ.


daṅ po de yaṅ gñis yin te | |

arigs [N 361a1] pa rnam graṅs don dam daṅ | |a

skye bab bkag pa’i don dam mo | | [4]

a-a N: rigs rnam graṅ don daṅ | |.   b C: skya ba.


mu bźi [D 329b7] skye ’gog la sogs pa’i | |

gtan tshigs [G 473b1] bźi yia rigs pa de | |

snaṅ ba’ib dṅos po thams cad kyaṅ | |

skye ba bkag pa’i [C 330a1] don dam moc | | [5]

a G: yis.   b N: snaṅ pa’i.   c N: da-mo.


spros [N 361a2] paa thams cad kyis stoṅ pa | |

de ni rnam graṅs ma yin pa’i | |

dam pa’i don [G 473b2] du śes par bya | | [6]

a N: spros ba.


yod pa’i mtha’ daṅ med pa’ia mtha’ | |

gñis po thams cad spaṅs pab ste | |

de lta bu ni don dam mo | | [7]

a D: med ba’i.   b N, C: spaṅs ba.


kun [D 330a1] rdzob ji ltar [N 361a3] snaṅ ba yin | |

de yaṅ gñis sua [G 473b3] śesb bya ste | |

log pa yi ni kun rdzod daṅ | |

[C 330a2] yaṅ dag pa yic kun rdzob bod | | [8]

a N: gñi-su.   b G: śes par.   c G: yis.   d N: kun rdzob po.


don byed nus pa’i dṅos po ni | |

yaṅ dag kun rdzob cesa bya ste | |

snaṅb yaṅ don byed mi [G 473b4] nus pa | |

[N 361a4] log pa yisc ni kun rdzob bod | | [9]

a G, N: źes.   b G: snaṅ ba.   c D, C: yi.   d N: kun rdzob po.


de yaṅ [D 330a2] gñis sua śes bya ste | |

rtog bcas daṅ ni rtog med gñis | |

rtog bcas thag pab la sbrul ’dzin | |

rtog med zla ba gñis ’dzin [G 473b5] pa’oc | | [10]

a N: gñi-su.   b N: tham pa.   c D: ’dzin ba’o.


des na thams cad [N 361a5] bdena [C 330a3] gñis sub | |

’dus pa ñid du bstan par bya | |

de don ñams suc blaṅs nas ni | |

phun sum tshogs pa thams cad thobd | | [11]

a G: de bden.   b N: gñi-su.   c N: ñam-su.   d D, C: ’thob; N: thog.


dbu ma yia ni don bsdus [G 473b6] pa | |

[D 330a3] de ltar bdag gis bśad pa yi | |

b[N 361a5] dge ba gaṅ des sems can gyic | |

bsam pa myur du ’grub gyur cig | | [12]

a G: yis.   b D, C add: dge ba bdag gis bsags pa yi | |.   c G, C: gyis.


|| dbu ma’ia don bsdus pa [C 330a4] slob dpon legs ldan ’byed [G 474a1] kyis mdzad pa rdzogs sob || || [N 361a6] lo tsā bac tshul khrims rgyal bas bsgyur ciṅ źus te gtan la phab pa’od ||

a D, C: dbu ma.   b N: rdzog-so.   c G, N: lo tstsha ba.   d C: phab bo’o.

3 thoughts on “♦ The Madhyamakārthasaṃgraha: edition of the Tibetan text

  1. As one of your followers, I would like to say thanks for this. I just added a ref to it in the Tibskrit bibliography, although you won’t see it there yet. Do you think any of the variant readings make a great difference in the way you would want to understand the text? I was trying to imagine an ultimate truth (paramārtha) that would stop the oars (skya-ba), but no, I guess that wouldn’t take us anywhere. Would it? Cheers! D.

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  2. Hi Dan,

    Many thanks for having referred to this short contribution of mine in Tibskrit. I really hope that this little edition will be of some help for anyone interested in Indo-Tibetological topics, and Tibskrit – that I’ve downloaded two days ago! – is certainly a valuable tool for that :-).

    With “skya ba”, I suppose you are referring to verse 4c (skye ba bkag pa’i don dam mo), whose version in C runs: skya ba bkag pa’i don dam mo. The Sanskrit recontruction of the line (according to the accepted D, G and N) would be something like: utpādapratiṣedhaparamārtha (following Lindtner) or janmarodhaparamārtha (following Shastri). I think that “skye ba” is to be taken as correct reading in the light of two textual considerations: verse 5d confirms indeed “skye ba” in all versions, and verse 5c: snaṅ ba’i dṅos po thams cad (prob. Skr. sarvāvabhāsabhāva) clearly identifies the “object” of this kind of paramārtha with “all the visible/apparent/manifested events”, a context in which “skye ba” fits better than “skya ba”: all the apparent/visible/manifested events, seen by means of this paramārtha, should be considered as non-produced/non-originated. This could mean that, at this level of paramārtha, one experiences/knows either the extintion of the production of all manifestations, or the fact that all things cannot be produced (in a substantialistic way).

    But please, let me know what you think about this explanation and, of course, if you agree or if you have other ermeneutical suggestions.

    🙂 k

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